The Early LAP 

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The Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (E-LAP) provides a systematic method for observing the skill development of children functioning in the birth to 36 month age- range. The purpose of this criterion-referenced assessment is to assist teachers, clinicians, and parents in assessing individual development. The Early LAP contains a hierarchy of 414 developmental skills arranged in chronological sequence in six domains of development:
  • gross motor (90 items) Infants and toddlers
  • fine motor (73 items)
  • cognition (105 items)
  • language (59 items)
  • self-help (49 items)
  • social-emotional (38 items)
E-LAP products may be purchased from Kaplan or Red-E-Set-Grow.
Infants and toddlers
Because it is a criterion referenced assessment instrument, the E-LAP may be administered in a variety of ways. A strict protocol for administering the instrument is not required. In some programs, a station approach is used where children go from a station for fine motor to a station for gross motor and so forth until all the domains are completed. This approach may be used at the beginning of the school or program year and then again at term’s end in the fashion of the pre-test, post-test mode. Other programs use the instrument to monitor child progress continuously during the program year. PDA (Palm Pilot, etc) software is available to assist teachers using this on-going assessment approach. Results are noted as observed on the hand-held PDA and then transferred to desktop computer, where results may be aggregated and reports created for individual and groups of children.
Infants and toddlers
If the administrator chooses to administer the E-LAP in a formal mode that is from front to back in one sitting we advise caution. The full E-LAP will take between an hour and an hour and a half to complete and the results may be skewed by child boredom or lack of cooperation during such a long session. We advise that the instrument be administered one domain a time depending on the child’s attention span. Teachers and caregivers who are familiar with the instrument can administer the E-LAP while observing the child in a natural play situation. Contact Kaplan for a video demonstrating this approach.
Infants and toddlers
The results of the E-LAP provide a complete picture of a child’s developmental progress so that individualized, developmentally appropriate, activities can be planned, implemented and monitored. This assessment can be used with any infant and toddler, including children with disabilities who are functioning below the 36-month age range. The E-LAP is not a “normed” or “standardized” instrument, so, therefore, its results should not be used in isolation to determine eligibility for special services or for other purposes that require standardized instruments. However, E-LAP results are often used in combination with standardized instruments to determine developmental levels of functioning and eligibility for special services. Professionals often choose the E-LAP because it gives a much more complete assessment of a child’s acquired skills and emerging skills than most standardized instruments.
Infants and toddlers
For a visual representation of the child’s developmental skills, use the profile form on the back of the Early-LAP Manual or Scoring Booklet. The profile is often used to show child progress to parents and caregivers.
Infants and toddlers
Assessment and observation summary forms are provided to summarize the progress of individual children at the beginning, middle, and end of the program year. Each form contains space to indicate skills the child has achieved, emerging skills, and strategies for supporting skill development at home.
Infants and toddlers
Early LAP Manual
The 122-page manual forms the core of the assessment. The manual includes:
  • a materials list for each domain
  • procedural instructions for administering individual items
  • scoring criteria for each item
  • assessment and observation summary pages
  • an IFSP form, and
  • a developmental profile page.

Scoring Booklet
Early LAP scoring booklets can be used for recording the results of the assessment. The scoring booklet contains an abbreviated form of each item name in the same sequential order as the manual and space for scoring assessment results, a comment column, and a developmental profile. The Early LAP scoring booklet is NOT an assessment instrument. It must be used in conjunction with the Early LAP Manual, which contains the procedures, materials needed, and scoring criteria for each item. Administrators may use the scoring booklet when:

  1. They are very familiar with the criteria and protocol for administering the items
  2. They have several children to administer the assessment to, and they want to do so at lower cost. The scoring booklets come in packs of 20 and cost substantially less than using a manual for each child.
Assessment Kit
The materials needed to administer the Early LAP are specified at the beginning of each assessment item in the E-LAP Manual. The materials can be gathered by the examiner, or for more consistent results, a standard Early LAP Kit can be purchased from Kaplan Early Learning Company or HATCH. The Early LAP Kit includes most of the necessary materials. For the sake of reliability and validity, we strongly recommend that kits be used that are composed of the same materials used in the validation study 
Early Learning Activity Cards
The Early Learning Activity Cards are a set of 414 sequential cards correlated with the Early LAP, one card for each item in the six domains. Each card describes step-by-step procedures for supporting skill development as well as one or more developmentally appropriate activities.

Spanish Materials
Early LAP materials are available in Spanish, including the manual, scoring booklet, and Early Learning Activity Cards.

Demonstration Video
Contact Kaplan for a video which demonstrates the administration of the E-LAP.

E-LAP software
Software is available to assist early childhood professionals in gathering and analyzing data for both individuals and groups of children. either in a web-based or CD-Rom format. An electronic scoring protocol is also available using a Palm Pilot application. For additional information on LAP software development, go to

Instructions for Using the Profile
After the pretest is completed, the examiner can use the profile chart to graphically show the results.
Using a colored marker, color in each box that represents an item that was completed successfully by the child. Also color in all items to the left of those actually administered (this is the basal--check the instructions) because it is assumed that the child would have accomplished these easier, lower level items had they been administered. The numbers by the boxes match the numbers of the items in each skill area. Not all the boxes have numbers. Item 16, for example is the box to the right of item 15, item 17 is two boxes to the right, and so forth.
Then, at the end of the program year or some other later time, administer the "post test" and color in the boxes that represent the items passed with a different, contrasting color. The result will give a graphic representation of the child's progress.

Validity and Reliability
This research examined the reliability and validity of the Early Learning Accomplishment Profile (Early LAP), a systematic method for observing children functioning in the birth to 36 month age range. Three sets of analyses were conducted: criterion validity, test-retest reliability, and inter rater reliability.
The study included children with typical and atypical development from the northeastern, southern, north central and western United States. A stratified sampling procedure was used based on geographic region, age, race/ethnicity, gender, and type of setting. Additionally, a sub sample of children with disabilities was included.
Infants and toddlers
Criterion validity was determined by examining the correlations using Pearson's r between the Early LAP developmental age domain scores and the BSID-II Mental and Motor Scale developmental age scores for conceptually related items. Correlations between the Early LAP and the BSID-II Mental Scale for the core sample (n = 242) ranged from .90 to .97, while correlations between the Early LAP and the BSID-II Motor Scale ranged from .92-.94.
Infants and toddlers
To assess test-retest reliability, a subset of children from the project sample (n = 92) were administered the Early LAP by the same examiner on two separate occasions, one to three weeks apart. Test-retest reliability ranged from .96-.99. To assess inter rater reliability, a subset of children from the project sample (n = 49) were administered the Early LAP by two different examiners on two separate occasions, one to three weeks apart. Inter rater reliability ranged from .96-.99. The mean raw scores for the children with disabilities for each domain were substantially lower than the mean of the children's chronological ages, and the correlations between raw scores and chronological age were substantially lower than the correlations for children with typical development.
Infants and toddlers
The results of this research indicate the Early LAP is a very reliable instrument for use in assessing the developmental progress of young children. The instrument performed well in both test-retest and inter rater reliability analyses, and criterion validity was very high for a comparable instrument.
For a copy of the E-LAP Technical Manual contact Kaplan.

Infants and toddlers
ECO Center Crosswalks
In working with states on outcome development and measurement approaches, the ECO Center cross-referenced the functional skills assessed by various published instruments with the three child outcomes required by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) for Part B (Section 619) and Part C programs, to assess the degree to which these instruments measure the required outcomes. Priority was also given to instruments that states identified for outcomes measurement in the State Performance Plans submitted to OSEP.
Infants and toddlers

Frequently Asked Questions
Administration Procedures
Infants and toddlers
Q: How do I compute the developmental age of the child I just assessed?
A: The purpose of the E-LAP is to demonstrate exactly what a child can and cannot do for the purpose of observing acquired and emerging skills. The E-LAP is not a standardized instrument and, so therefore, it is not intended to provide standardized or norm-referenced information. The developmental ages that are provided for each item in the E-LAP may be used to approximate the child’s level of functioning. The Profile page when filled out, can give parents and caregivers an approximate representation of the child’s progress in each developmental domain. Page 112 of the E-LAP Manual gives instructions for determining the child’s approximate developmental age using E-LAP results.
Child Assessment
Q: The Early LAP is not standardized. Do I have to follow the procedures exactly as they are written?
A: The procedures described in the Early LAP were tested during the reliability and validity research. If you do not use the exact procedures, the results may not be as reliable as they would be otherwise.
Child Assessment
Q: Do I have to use the materials in the Early LAP kit?
A: For the most reliable results, you should use the same materials that were used to validate the E-LAP. A kit of these materials is available from either of our publishing partners.
Child Assessment
Scoring Procedures
Child Assessment
Q: How do I establish a basal?
A: Because it is important that the child establish a basal (or initial level of successful functioning), the positive demonstration of eight consecutive behaviors has been designated as the basal for the Early LAP.
Child Assessment
Q: What is the child misses the first item?
A: If the child fails to demonstrate a specific skill, the assessor should work backwards on the task hierarchy until the basal of eight consecutive items is established.
Child Assessment
Q: What if I have administered all the items in a domain and the child has not gotten eight consecutive items correct?
A: If a basal cannot be established because the child is too young to administer the first eight items or has not gotten eight consecutive items correct and all items have been administered, use the first item in that domain as the basal.
Q: How is the ceiling established?
Child Assessment
A: After the basal has been determined, the assessment should continue until the child accumulates three minuses in a five-item sequence. This defines the child’s ceiling level of performance. The assessment should end at this point.
Child Assessment
Q: What if I administer all of the items in a domain and the child does not miss three out of five consecutive items?
A: If the child has established a basal and successfully completes all items in a domain without accumulating three minuses out of five consecutive items, use the last item of that domain as the ceiling cut off.
Child Assessment
Q: How do I score cross-referenced items:
A: A number of items on the Early LAP are cross-referenced between domains. For example, item number FM 54 is the same as item number C 68. Because these items are exactly the same, the score for an item in one domain that is cross-referenced to another domain should be automatically given in the second domain. Therefore, if a child receives a plus (+) for successfully completing FM 54, the child also should receive credit for C 68.
Child Assessment
Q: How do I score an item that a child refuses to attempt?
A: If you administer an item and the child refuses to attempt it, the score should be recorded as a minus (-) with the word “refused” written in the comment column.
Child Assessment
Q: How do I score an item when the materials are not available?
A: If an item cannot be administered because the material is not available (e.g., a stairway) or some other extenuating circumstance, this should be noted in the comment column. However, it is important to recognize that such missing information compromises the ability of the assessment to provide an accurate overall picture of the child’s skills and should be acknowledged in subsequent uses of the assessment information for individual planning.

To purchase LAP products and training, please contact our publishing partners:


The 122-page Early LAP manual (above) , kit (below), software, and other materials are available from Kaplan and Red-E-Set Grow.

Activity cards for the E-LAP correlate to E-LAP items.

Drug awareness for four-year-olds. Click here.

For a complete list of CHTOP curriculum guides, click here: